Care of child with HIV

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Learn About How HIV-1 Spreads, Undetectable HIV, & An HIV-1 Treatment Option. See Real People Living With HIV Share Their Experiences With An HIV-1 Treatment Option An estimated 1.7 million children aged 0-14 were living with HIV at the end of 2018, and 160 000 children were newly infected. An estimated 100 000 children died of AIDS-related illnesses. To reduce HIV-related mortality and morbidity among this highly vulnerable population, early testing and treatment is essential. Without access to testing and treatment, 50% of children with HIV will die by. A child living with HIV may be undersized or underweight because of loss of appetite related to HIV or because of some of the drug treatments. Children living with HIV may have diarrhea, which can also make it difficult to gain weight. It is important that children living with HIV have proper nutrition The epidemiology of HIV among children results from the interplay of several factors: the rising incidence of HIV among women of childbearing age, the dramatic effect of treatment on mother-to-child transmission, and the changing rate of disease progression and overall survival with advances in prophylaxis and antiviral therapy HIV/Aids Spreads Through: Contact of mucous membranes or openings in the skin with infected blood and body fluids that contain blood, semen and cervical discharges. Breastfeeding. Dirty needles or sharp instruments. Mother passes to infant before birth. Sexual contact. HIV/AIDS is NOT spread through the type of contact that occurs in childcare.

Innocenti Insight Caring for Children Affected by HIV and AIDS 2 In communities around the world, people are rising to the challenge to care for the children affected by HIV and AIDS. Amidst the horror and despair are enormous acts of courage, solidarity and commitment. This Innocenti Insight draws on many of these efforts HIV can pass from a mother with HIV to her child during pregnancy, childbirth, or breastfeeding (called mother-to-child transmission of HIV). In the United States, the most common way children under 13 years of age get HIV is through mother-to-child transmission of HIV In waiting areas of HIV care and treatment and reproductive and child health services (RCH) services, ECD corners were established, wherein trained service providers provide caregivers with general health care messaging and practical guidance on early stimulation, learning through play and communication with their children, using locally made, age-appropriate play materials Home-based care and childcare volunteers should make sure that children with HIV/AIDS are properly supported. It is best for children to be looked after by those they know and make them feel safe. If possible, children with HIV/AIDS should be left in the care of their families and relatives

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  1. Advances in HIV research, prevention, and treatment have made it possible for many women with HIV to give birth to babies who are free of HIV. The annual number of HIV infections through perinatal transmission in the United States and dependent areas a has declined by more than 95% since the early 1990s
  2. If you have HIV and take HIV medicine as prescribed throughout pregnancy and childbirth, and give HIV medicine to your baby for 4 to 6 weeks after giving birth, your risk of transmitting HIV to your baby can be 1% or less. After delivery, you can prevent transmitting HIV to your baby by avoiding breastfeeding, since breast milk contains HIV
  3. Nurturing care ensures children affected by HIV survive and thrive More children affected by HIV are surviving. Advances in access to routine services and HIV prevention and care services means that more mothers living with HIV are surviving as are more of the 1.3 million infant
  4. Positive HIV antigen/antibody test results should be urgently reported to health care providers so that presumptive HIV therapy can be initiated in the infant as soon after birth as possible and ideally within 6 to 12 hours of life. In addition, breastfeeding should be postponed, and the infant should be given formula feedings
  5. Regular HIV testing, treatment, monitoring and care for children living with HIV can enable them to live long and fulfilling lives. However, a lack of necessary investment and resources for adequate testing, paediatric ARVs and child-friendly prevention programmes mean children continue to suffer the consequences of the epidemic
  6. OBJECTIVE: To improve the conditions of out-of-home care of HIV-infected children. METHODS: Group discussions including staff members of 28 institutions having cared for an HIV-infected child with the objective to share 4 points of view: those of the HIV-infected child, of his parents, of the medical staff and of the out-of-home care professionals
  7. Persistent or severe symptoms may not surface for 10 years or more after HIV first enters the body in adults, or within 2 years in children born with an HIV infection. This asymptomatic period of the infection is highly variable from person to person

The hospital provides care and support to over 61,000 men, women, and children living with HIV at the main site and the districts, through a wide range of services. Of these, around 12% are babies and children below the age of 15 The management of infants whose mothers are infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) involves minimizing the risk of vertical transmission of HIV, recognizing neonatal HIV infection..

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The nursing care of patients with HIV/AIDS is challenging because of the potential for any organ system to be the target of infections or cancer Taking HIV treatment won't cure your child but it can keep HIV under control. Without treatment, HIV will damage your child's immune system - putting them at risk of getting ill. Untreated HIV is particularly serious for babies and young children. Once your child has started treatment, it's important that they take it every day Like all children, HIV-exposed infants need energy, proteins, vitamins, and minerals to ensure normal growth. Nutritional needs of an HIV-exposed infant depend on age, growth pattern, HIV infection status, and presence of other comorbidities. An uninfected exposed infant has same nutritional requirements as an infant unexposed to HIV infection

Among 381 children and adolescents with perinatal HIV, the prevalence of nonadherence increased from 31% to 50% (P < 0.001), and the prevalence of unsuppressed viral loads increased from 16% to 40% (P < 0.001) between pre-adolescence and late adolescence/young adulthood. 8 Similarly, in a report from the Early Pediatric Initiation Canada Cure. Babies born to women with HIV receive HIV medicine as soon as possible after birth, preferably within 6 to 12 hours of delivery. The HIV medicine protects the babies from infection with any HIV that passed from mother to child during childbirth Detailed information on HIV home care for your child HIV/Aids in Childcare - Nationwide Children's Hospital Updated: 0 sec ago Learn how to manage HIV/AIDS in child care. standard safety measures should be followed when handling blood or blood-containing body fluids

WHO Treatment of children living with HI

The HIV/AIDS epidemic in sub-Saharan Africa has had both direct and indirect effects on the population. Caregivers of HIV infected persons have been severely affected by the epidemic [1, 2].The HIV epidemic has for a long time been one of the primary causes of both child and adult mortality in HIV endemic settings within Sub-Saharan Africa including Uganda [] 1. NURSING CARE OF HIV/AIDS CHILDREN PRESENTED BY:- Akanksha Chandra ABPL10010214001. 2. INTRODUCTION CHILDREN are innocent victims of HIV/AIDS. HIV or human immunodeficiency virus leads to AIDS i.e. acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. It is fatal illness and a pandemic disease with large number of infected children throughout the world Despite some decline in HIV adult prevalence worldwide and increased access to treatment, the number of children affected by or vulnerable to HIV remains alarmingly high. Families and communities have led a massive response to protect, care for and support children affected by HIV and AIDS The opportunities for children to access diagnosis and care is limited. Approximately 260,000 children aged 0-14 years were living with HIV in Nigeria in 2015, with 41,000 new infections occurring among children, and only 17 per cent of children living with HIV having access to antiretroviral therapy (ART)

Researchers study text messaging to improve retention and viral suppression in prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission programs in Kenya. Credit: Ivan Samkov/Pexels. Over the years, Global WACh utilized the Mobile WACh mobile health (mHealth) system that allows for both automated sending of tailored health-related short message service. AIDS Alliance for Children, Youth, and Families A national, non-profit organization founded to help respond to the unique concerns of children, youth, women, and families who are living with, at risk for, or affected by HIV/AIDS. They conduct policy research, education, and advocacy on a broad range of HIV/AIDS prevention, care, and research issues This chapter examines hospice care for children with AIDS and HIV infection. It discusses the historical response of pediatric hospital to AIDS, the social considerations that affect the care of HIV-infected children, and the prevalence of behavioral and psychiatric symptoms in children with HIV infection and AIDS

Programs for Families Affected by HIV/AIDS. Find programs and strategies to support caregivers and reduce risk factors for child abuse and neglect in families with caregivers who are impacted by HIV/AIDs. Discusses current and upcoming Federal programs for providing accessible care and mitigating race and socioeconomic disparities in outcomes. Children may have delayed development or failure to thrive. During the course of the HIV infection, most people experience a gradual decline in the number of CD4+ T cells. Though some individuals may have abrupt and dramatic drops in their counts. The symptoms of an HIV infection may resemble other medical conditions Abbreviations: HIV = human immunodeficiency virus • AAP = American Academy of Pediatrics • PCR = polymerase chain reaction; An estimated 500 000 children and adolescents in the United States are in foster care. 1 Entrance to the foster care system may occur as a consequence of parental substance abuse, neglect, physical abuse, sexual abuse, or loss of biologic parent(s) resulting from. The Panel has added content about the use of telemedicine visits and telehealth communication in the care of children with HIV, including information about the characteristics and requirements for in-person clinic visits vs. telemedicine visits, see Table A. What to Start. Text and Table 7 HIV-infected children less than 12 months of age, regardless of CD4 count. HIV-infected children aged one to five years with WHO stages 2, 3 or 4 or a CD4 count below 25%. HIV-infected children older than 5 years with WHO stages 3 or 4 or a CD4 count below 200 cells/µl should be started on prophylactic cotrimoxazole

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Care and Treatment for Children Living with HIV The Well

Children with HIV and AIDS are just as subject to discrimination as adults but are much less able to fend for themselves. It is important that every effort be made, by caregivers, teachers, health care providers, child care committees and community leaders, to educate community members child to improve or maintain a certain level of adherence, the caregiver's level of knowledge of HIV disclosure, and the child or adolescent's status on ART.25-28 HIV disclosure for children with vertically and horizontally acquired HIV differs based on several contextual factors In children with HIV, common illnesses are often more serious, chronic or difficult to treat. Death rates are also high in children with HIV and AIDS. Estimates vary, but between 10 and 40 per cent of children with HIV in developing countries die before they are 12 months old. Between 50 and 75 per cent die before the age of five years

access to HIV prevention, care and treatment services.5 Figure 2 Number of Children and Adolescents Aged 19 and Under Living with HIV/AIDS per Region in 2018 Source: UNICEF Most children are infected with HIV through their HIV-positive mothers during pregnancy, birth, or through breast-feeding Treatment for HIV has come a long way in recent years. Today, many children living with HIV thrive into adulthood. HIV is a virus that attacks the immune system. That makes children with HIV more.

HIv status to children, provide on-going supportive counseling and address care and treatment adherence issues. The number of HIv counselors trained in pediatric aspects of HIv counseling is still limited. Most HIv care centers in Sub-Saharan Africa providing care to children do so without providing th 2. Nutritional Care of HIV-Exposed and Infected Infants < 6 Months of Age 4 2.1 Infant feeding options for HIV exposed infants < 6 months of age 2.2 Encouraging safer breast feeding 2.3 Replacement feeding as the infant feeding option 2.4 Wet Nursing 3. Nutritional Care of HIV Exposed and Infected Children 6 Months - 14 Years of Age 1 Prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission (PMTCT) interventions are pivotal role in protecting vulnerable infants from acquiring HIV. In South Africa, about 254,000 HIV-infected pregnant women are identified and provided with antiretroviral therapy annually. With early infant diagnosis (EID), infants born to HIV-infected mothers can be. Advances in antiretroviral therapy (ART) have made it possible for persons with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) to live a near expected life span, without progressing to AIDS or transmitting HIV to sexual partners or infants. There is, therefore, increasing emphasis on maintaining health throughout the life span. To receive optimal medical care and achieve desired outcomes, persons with HIV. In November 2012, the MAC AIDS Fund provided UNICEF funding for a two-year project to improve and scale up access to HIV testing, treatment and care among children and adolescents. The project was extended through 2016 to link HIV testing to follow-up treatment and support services particularly among 13-to19-year-olds living with HIV, as well.

Primary Care of Infants and Children with HI

dangers and prevention measures for HIV (St. Louis, Levine, & Wasserheit, et al., 1998). If the child is diagnosed with HIV, close health supervision is needed to ensure medica-tions and examinations are carried out.When HIV progresses to AIDS, nursing care is sim-ilar to that of a child with any serious chronic, life-threatening disease 13.1.3 ICTC HIV-Exposed Infant/Child Register (EIC-3) 51 13.1.4 ICTC HIV-Exposed Infant/Child Card (EIC-4) 51 13.1.5 Exposed Infant/Child Referral Form (EIC-5) 52 13.2 Records for care of HIV exposed infant/child to be maintained at ART centre 13.2.1 ART Centre HIV-Exposed Infant/Child Register (EIC-6) 52 13.3 Monthly reporting format and facilitate the entire HIV care and treatment cascade over time with age-appropriate information and approaches. The programs have a long history of building community capacity to protect children through awareness and self-management of child protection threats and solutions, increased mal Module 5: Nutrition and Care Recommendations For Infants and Children This module provides feeding and care recommendations for infants and children regardless of HIV status. Module 6: A Food-Based Approach To Support HIV/AIDS Affected Households and Communities This module provides information on the selection, composition and size o • the prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV, syphilis, and other infections, and • the care and treatment of the women living with, and their children exposed to HIV, syphilis and other infections PILLAR 1 Primary prevention of transmittable diseases, especially among women of childbearing age PILLAR 2 Preventing unintende

HIV/Aids in Childcare - Nationwide Children's Hospita

HIV-infected children in rural southern Zambia have long travel times to access care and may have poorer weight gain on ART than children in urban areas. Despite these barriers, these children had a substantial rise in CD4+ T cell counts in the first year of ART although longer follow-up may indicate these gains are not sustained We have made tremendous progress in terms of reducing the risk of mother-to-child transmission. Provided that a woman living with HIV takes good care of herself and her developing baby, which includes getting proper prenatal care and taking a combination of HIV medications during pregnancy, labor and delivery—the risk of HIV transmission is less than 2 percent Children may get HIV through sexual activity, needles used for drugs, or sexual abuse, but most cases in childrenoccur by an HIV infected mother passing the virus to her unborn baby in the uterus or during childbirth

Systems of Care for HIV-Infected Children in Foster Care. Approximately 800 HIV-infected children nationally were in foster care placement as of June 1989, according to ASPE. The 7 sites visited by the study team represented 545 HIV-infected children in foster care, or 68 percent of the total number of HIV-infected children in care For most of these children, no option is as good as living with healthy parents; where this is not possible (given the realities of the HIV/AIDS epidemic), family- and community-based sources of care are the most child-centered - and the only practical - means of responding to the scale of the problem The survival rate for children in POL's program is greater than 95%. The Impact. Health services, food, and medicines for 500 HIV+ children. Training in HIV care and prevention for families. 200 children receive school support (fees, uniforms, shoes, school bags, etc). Indirect impacts: 95% survival rate Until no child has AIDS. Founded over 30 years ago, The Elizabeth Glaser Pediatric AIDS Foundation is committed to a comprehensive response to fighting HIV and AIDS through research, global advocacy, strengthening of local health care systems, and growing the capacity of governments and communities in the world's most affected regions to respond to urgent needs

In total, just under 360,000 children were reached with 1 hour HIV and health education sessions in 2015/16. Prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) In 2016, more than 97% of HIV-positive pregnant women received antiretroviral drugs to reduce the risk of mother-to-child transmission (MTCT), equating to 115,000 women African leaders have the power to help us change the pace of care and should act and lead until no child living with HIV is left behind. The report details areas for action, starting with reaching pregnant women with testing and treatment as early as possible, as some 66,000 new HIV infections occurred in children because their mothers. Infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) still presents a serious public health concern particularly among children. Despite efforts to improve services and outcomes of children living with HIV, a large number of children continue to die from HIV annually [1, 2]., Although children less than 15 years old constituted 4.5% of all individuals living with HIV in 2018, they accounted. The standard treatment for HIV is a combination of medicines called antiretroviral therapy (ART). ART medicines slow the rate at which the virus multiplies. Taking these medicines can reduce the amount of virus in your child's body and help your child stay healthy. The ART medicines are available as powders and flavored syrups that you can mix. The long-term future of children with HIV is uncertain. The current average life expectancy is about 10 years from the time of diagnosis, but new treatments mean things are improving all the time. With good care, HIV-infected children today have a good chance of living as long as anyone else who has the disease, and that can be decades

The Oral Point of Care Test. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommend that adolescents and adults between the ages of 13 and 64 be tested for HIV as part of their routine medical care. The Oral Point of Care test checks for HIV antibodies. The test is done by swabbing the inside of the patient's mouth with a stick that. Are children tested for HIV before being placed in foster care? No. Children are not tested for HIV before being fostered. When a child's HIV status is known and the child is under 14, this may be told to the foster parents if it is in the child's best interests, for example: the child needs special medical care. Foster care grant The African Network for the Care of Children Affected by HIV/AIDS (ANECCA) is a network of clinicians and social scientists across Africa working to improve the quality of health care services for women, children, adolescents, young adults and their families in Africa by strengthening the RMNCAHN platform Background: HIV-positive women in the United States can have healthy pregnancies and avoid transmitting HIV to their children. Yet, little is known about the extent to which HIV care providers' reproductive health practices match women's pregnancy desires. Accordingly, we explored young HIV-positive women's pregnancy desires and reproductive health behaviors and examined reproductive. The story of global health in the last decades is the story of staggering inequality. In poor countries, 4 out of 1,000 women will die in childbirth. In Sierra Leone, 1 in 17 women will die while giving birth. That's 97 times more likely than women in the United States. In Sub-Saharan Africa, 1 in 13 children will die before their 15th.

HIV and Children and Adolescents NI

The African Network for the Care of Children Affected by AIDS (ANECCA) developed the Handbook on Counselling and Psychosocial Care for Children and Adolescents Living with and Affected by HIV in Africa, with support from the Strengthening High Impact Interventions for an AIDS-free Generation (AIDSFree) Project, implemented by JSI Research & Training Institute, Inc. (JSI) wit Reactions of health care personnel to patients with HIV documented in another study included ignoring the patient, spending inadequate time on the patient's needs, providing inadequate or substandard care to a patient in pain, trying to steer the patient to other clinics rather than provide services, refusing to draw blood, refusing to pull a. Learn About How HIV-1 Spreads, Undetectable HIV, & An HIV-1 Treatment Option. Discover a Complete, One-Pill, Once-a-Day Treatment Option for HIV-1 Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is the virus that causes AIDS. HIV infection means that the body's immune system may not fight off infections very well. Your child's body may not be able to fight back against illness, even a simple cold. Additional care is needed for a child with HIV in order to help him or her remain healthy

Additional care is needed for a child with HIV in order to help him/her remain healthy. Children living with HIV are seen at specialty HIV clinics regularly, usually every three to six months and require blood tests so their provider can evaluate the amount of virus in their blood, numbers of CD4 cells and other laboratory tests on how the. Fast fact: Of the 1.72 million [1.23 million-2.17 million] children aged 0-14 living with HIV globally, only 54 [37-69] per cent were receiving life-saving antiretroviral therapy (ART) in 2020. Globally, children under age 15 account for about 5 per cent of all people living with HIV, 10 per cent of new HIV infections and 15 per cent of all AIDS-related deaths Symptoms of HIV in teens may be the same as in children, and may also be more similar to the symptoms commonly seen in adults with HIV. Some teens and adults may develop a flu-like illness within a month or two after exposure to the HIV virus, although, many people do not develop any symptoms at all when they first become infected

Care for children affected by HIV/AID

9.1. Introduction and Epidemiology. The global pandemic of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection has had grave consequences in the lives of affected infants, children, and adolescents, with more than 33% of infant and child mortality attributed to HIV infection in endemic locations .In settings where voluntary and public resources are insufficient to provide long-term care, millions of. Children with HIV-positive parents are at a greater risk of being orphaned, abandoned, removed by social services, placed into foster or institutional care, becoming homeless, or left to head households on their own

Pregnant Women, Infants, and Children Gender HIV by

Preventing Mother-to-Child Transmission of HIV HIV

In 2011 the World Health Organisation recommended that children with a diagnosis of HIV be gradually informed about their HIV status between the ages of 6 and 12 years. However, to date, literature has focused mainly on primary caregiver and child experiences with HIV disclosure, little is known about healthcare workers' perspectives and practices of HIV status disclosure to children Because HIV infection is not acquired through the typical types of contact that occur among children (eg, through saliva or tears), HIV-infected children should be allowed to attend school without restrictions. Similarly, there are no inherent reasons to restrict foster care, adoptive placement, or child care of HIV-infected children 1. First of all, it is critical that the mother gives birth at a hospital in order to limit the risk that the child will contract HIV during the delivery process. According to Dr. Robert Ayisi, about 40% of Kenyan women still give birth at home, but CARE for AIDS ensures that all mothers give birth in a hospital. 2 Q: Can two HIV-positive parents have an HIV-negative child? Yes, they can. Although HIV can pass from a woman with HIV to her child during pregnancy, at the time of birth, or when breast-feeding the infant, medical treatment of both the mother and her infant can minimize the chances of that happening

relevant to the care of children and adolescents with advanced HIV disease. It is therefore not meant to be a comprehensive review of all severe comorbidities that affect children living with HIV. In addition, many of the interventions described here are also relevant for children and adolescents living with HIV who do not have advanced disease New Clues to the Conundrum of Mother-to-Child HIV Transmission. April 26, 2021. An illustration of a woman holding her baby. Credit: Shutterstock. Each year over 150,000 infants worldwide are infected with HIV in the womb, at birth, or through breastfeeding. Why transmission occurs in some cases but not others has long been a mystery, but now a.

Evaluation and Management of the Infant Exposed to HIV in

HIV and new infections among children globally, PMTCT coverage in 2015 increased to 80% with mother-to-child transmission rates declining overall from an estimated 26% [24-30%] in 2009 to 8.9% [15-20%] in 2015 1 The specific age to which an HIV infected child can be disclosed to is stipulated to begin between ages 4 and 6 years. It has also been documented that before disclosure of HIV positive status to the infected child. Health care providers should consider children's cognitive-developmental ability. However, observation and situation analysis show that, health care providers still feel. Palliative care needs of HIV exposed and infected children admitted to the inpatient paediatric unit in Uganda Jane Nakawesi, Ivy Kasirye, David Kavuma, Benjamin Muziru, Alice Businge, Jackie Naluwooza, Grace Kabunga, Yvonne Karamagi, Edith Akankwasa, Mary Odiit and Barbara Mukasa Mildmay Uganda, PO Box 24985, Kampala, Uganda Correspondence to: Jane Nakawesi Fast facts: About 160,000 [Confidence bounds: 100,000-240,000] new HIV infections among children under 5 years of age occurred in 2020, dramatically declining from 320,000 [210,000-500,000] in 2010 and representing a 52 per cent decline. Among the 35 UNICEF HIV priority countries, about 120,000 [80,000-200,000] new HIV infections among children under 5 years of age occurred in 2020 from. Nursing care of children with HIV or AID

Children, HIV and AIDS Aver

This article reports on the palliative care needs of HIV exposed and HIV positive children admitted to the inpatient paediatric unit at Mildmay Uganda. Methods Study design The study was a retrospective descriptive study of all HIV exposed and HIV positive children admitted to the inpatient unit at Mildmay Uganda from January to December 2012 The transmission of HIV from mother to newborn is significantly lower when early interventions are in place. The American Academy of Pediatrics updates its guidance on evaluating and managing medical care for infants exposed to the human immunodeficiency virus in a newly published clinical report in Pediatrics.About 8,500 women with HIV infection give birth annually in the United States. Mother-to-child transmission of HIV is the spread of HIV from an HIV-infected woman to her child during pregnancy, childbirth (also called labor and delivery), or breastfeeding (through breast milk). Mother-to-child transmission is the most common way that children become infected with HIV

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Background Children living with HIV remain undiagnosed due to missed opportunities along the prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission cascade. This study addresses programmatic gaps in the cascade by describing pregnancy and HIV-related services received by mothers of children newly identified as HIV-positive through active case finding. Methods This was a prospective observational. The HIV epidemic in South Africa is putting great strain on health services, including the inpatient care of young children. Caregivers and young children (107 pairs) and 17 nurses participated in an intervention to improve the care of young children in hospital in a high HIV and AIDS setting. The intervention addressed caregiver expectations about admission and treatment, responsive feeding. In summary, ART and care for infants, children, adolescents and older people lags behind that of adults (20-59 years), presenting unique challenges in HIV diagnosis, provision of ART and ongoing care. Although huge progress has been made, increasing coverage for all these specific populations is a large challenge for the future Ninety-four HIV-positive adolescents, 10-15 years old, on antiretroviral therapy were recruited to the study. 47 participants received standard of care from the Ministry of Health and Child Care and 47 received the same standard of care plus CATS services Transmission of HIV from mothers to children is the primary cause of HIV infection in children. Despite many positive developments and interventions for the prevention of mother-to-child during pregnancy, labour, birth and breastfeeding, significant challenges remain Introduction. HIV infections continue to be a source of significant mortality in the pediatric population. As of 2012, approximately 3.3 million children younger than 15 years were living with HIV worldwide, and there were 260,000 new infections in children .Mortality is high among HIV-infected infants in their first year of life; approximately 30% of HIV-positive children do not survive to.