Importance of family planning in developing countries

Consequently, the governments in many developing countries have adopted vigorous family planning programs. It is difficult to reduce population growth in developing countries because these countries have a high proportion of young people in their populations, i.e., a high number of persons of reproductive age Family planning can reduce the risk of mortality associated with childbirth. Death in childbirth is almost 20 times as likely for each birth in developing countries as in developed countries. Many successive pregnancies magnify this risk If the demand of women in developing countries who wanted access to safe and effective family planning was met, it would reduce an estimated 100,000 maternal death and avert 67 million unintended.. The proportion of the need for family planning satisfied by modern methods, Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) indicator 3.7.1, was 75.7% globally in 2019, yet less than half of the need for family planning was met in Middle and Western Afric Ethical Issues pertaining family planning and population control in developing countries Family Planning and Population control policies can be argued to be paternalistic and thus restrict individual autonomy. Such paternalistic approach raise questions such as: can th

It was Melinda Gates' talk about the importance of family planning and access to contraception for women in developing countries. Why is this important? More than 200 million women in developing countries who want to use contraceptives don't have access to it according to the United Nations Population Fund and Guttmacher Institute Family planning is central to gender equality and women's empowerment, and it is a key factor in reducing poverty

Family planning in developing nations: a global concern

  1. Currently, 500 million women in the developing world are using some form of family planning, thereby preventing 187 million unintended pregnancies, 60 million unplanned births, 105 million induced abortions, 2.7 million infant deaths, 215,000 maternal deaths and 685,000 children from losing their mothers due to pregnancy-related deaths each year
  2. The Economic Benefits of Family Planning Jul 25, 2018 Natalia Kanem The ability to decide when or whether to have children is not only a basic human right; it is also the key to economic empowerment, especially for poor women
  3. Family planning is important for the health of a mother and her children, as well as the family's economic situation. According to the United States Agency for International Development, having children more than five years or less than two years apart can cause both a mother and her children serious health consequences

The importance of family planning The provision of family planning services is an investment with clear returns for individuals, families, and countries. Young mother with children at Nyamebekyere clinic in Ghana the family planning movement and their implications for population and development policy in the less developed countries. A neo-Malthusian perspective, in which a reduction of the current high rates of population growth is considered to be a necessary condition for economic develop-ment in the less developed countries, is dominant among.

It's estimated that family planning could actually reduce maternal deaths by about a quarter. In developing countries, 270 million women who desire to avoid pregnancy are not using safe family planning methods. Yet, many of these women want to limit their family size or increase spacing between children Young women who reside in developing countries often face insurmountable challenges when seeking reproductive health care. No developing country has enough medical resources to meet the complete reproductive health care needs of all of its women of fertile age. Most have some family planning clinics, usually situated in large cities, and some have an extensive network of smaller clinics. These.

Family Planning in Developing Countries: An Unfinished

  1. To improve access to family planning services and increase use of contraception in developing countries, it is important to improve access to a broad mix of contraception methods that can appeal to a variety of women and families and to improve availability of competent health care providers that can properly inform
  2. planning is especially important in developing countries where high fertility rates lead to millions of unintended pregnancies each year, contributing to abortions, maternal mortality, and infant mortality (Cleveland et al., 2006). Recent estimates indicate that more than 700 women i
  3. Improving access to family planning and reproductive health (FP/RH) services globally can help prevent maternal deaths and reduce unintended pregnancies. Each year, an estimated 303,000 women die..
  4. Over the past five years, countries have made significant progress towards improving access to voluntary family planning services. In 2016, 300 million women and girls across 69 of the world's lowest-income countries were using modern contraceptives
  5. developing countries (Population References Bureau, 2003).Extensive evidence shows that family planning is a good investment for governments, fewer babies mean improved health status for families, lower costs of maternal/child health care and of education, and higher worker productivity (5
  6. developing countries know about and have access to quality family planning. We support voluntary family planning as a means to meet the needs of men and women and to awareness of the importance of family planning among donors, country governments, and the private sector
  7. Family planning programs have been a key public health interven-tion in developing countries and a component of international de-velopment assistance programs for three reasons: demographic, health, and human rights. Each of these rationales can also be viewed as goals for family planning programs because each implie

Another study of DHS data from 54 developing countries found that family planning was among the most inequitably distributed interventions in maternal, newborn, and child health, with 67% of people in the top economic quintile reporting their needs were satisfied, compared with 41.4% of people in the bottom economic quintile women in developing countries want to limit childbearing but are unable to do because of unmet needs, resources, limited access, religious beliefs, poor availability of facilities, lack of education and family planning services. In recent times, family planning is one of the major areas of interest which needs to be addressed and acted upon Family planning also saves women's lives. Worldwide, over 215 million women want access to family planning supplies but do not have access and we want to change this alarming statistic. Male involvement in family planning is important, as is integration into other health services, including HIV/AIDS, nutrition and immunization The importance of planning is not always obvious to everyone. In fact there is a view that suggests that only developing countries have development plans. In fact developed countries will tell you that they do not do development planning; they tell you that they just somehow do what they need to do without a plan Family planning was and still is seen as a tool to not only help lower overall global fertility rates but also aid increasing the economic and social development in many countries, particularly in developing nations by lowering health risks associated with pregnancy and childbirth to women and children

responsible for the minimal success of family planning with women as the only target was the ignorance of males (husbands and partners of female clients). A lot of factors may be assigned why the practice of family planning has not witnessed the desired impact in developing countries especially Ghana family planning, to define the field of family planning communication, and to point out directions for future research (p. 41). Rogers built on basic communication models to explore the nature of communication for purposes of family planning in developing countries. He concluded that mass media, and specifically, television had not been full Many countries with low levels of demand for family planning satisfied with modern methods are projected to witness rapid growth in the population of women aged 15 to 49 years through 2030

Safe, effective family planning is key to 'empowering

in high-fertility countries to warrant a family planning services—or sup-ply-side—approach. To deal with this skepticism and to determine the extent of demand for fertility regulation, surveys on knowledge, attitudes, and practices re-garding family planning were mounted in various parts of the developing Family planning programs have success in developing countries, but need to be expanded. While many researchers generally credit the desire for smaller families for the decline in fertility rates. Sign the pledge: I pledge to support more access to family planning services in developing countries. This access is important because it can reduce poverty, promote economic growth by improving family well-being, increase gender equality, prevent the spread of HIV and improve the quality of life for millions of children and families Family planning is arguably one of the most important public health advancements in the last century, and it is defined as a woman's ability to decide if and when to have children. Family planning services include counseling, education, access to contraception, and access to safe abortion. The positive effects of family planning are evident. In early 2010, researchers with the Futures Group in Washington, DC, estimated the demographic impact of meeting unmet family-planning demand in 99 developing countries and one developed one. The researchers excluded China, on the assumption that government population policies aimed at limiting most families to a single child rule out births.

Family planning/contraception method

built upon decades of clinical and community networking and partnering, while developing lasting collaborative relationships with the Ministry of Health and Social Welfare (MOHSW) and a variety of public and private sector partners. In 1960, the Pathfinder Fund supported the founding of the Tanzanian Family Planning Association (UMATI) Unmet need for family planning points to the gap between women's reproductive desire to avoid pregnancy and contraceptive behaviour. An estimated 222 million women in low- and middle-income countries have unmet need for modern contraception. Despite its prevalence, there has been little rigorous research during the past fifteen years on reasons for this widespread failure to implement. Family Planning in Developing Countries Maureen Lewis and Genevieve Kenney In harnessing the private sector to provide more family planning services to both middle and low income people, governments can use incentives to stimulate private sector investment and can ensure quality control through regulation FP2020 is a global partnership to empower women and girls by investing in rights-based family planning. The platform FP2020 has built is resilient, inclusive, and effective. Most importantly, countries are in the driver's seat

Family planning and population control in developing

Planning in Developing Countries D. Banerji, M B B S (Calcutta), M A (Cornell), Sociologist, National Tuberculosis Institute, Bangalore. The Tuberculosis Problem: A Function of Human Ecology Tuberculosis is no longer considered a major public health problem in the economically advanced countries, in which it is significant that social an Especially in developing and under developed countries large, portion of population lies below poverty line. People do not have income to afford meal for twice a day and also cannot afford to buy family planning devices and services such as Condom, Pills, IUCD, and Norplant or to carry out sterilization The implementation of family planning programs in developing countries has followed two different models. Asian programs benefited from a strong government commitment to family planning, which implied the participation of the public sector, with a top-down and sometimes authoritarian implementation family planning programs worldwide. Global funding for family planning tripled during the 1970s and early 1980s - and by the mid-1990s, large-scale family planning programs were active in 115 countries (Cleland et al., 2006). Remarkably, the total fertility rate in developing countries also fell by more than half over this period (Sinding, 2007) Previous analyses have emphasised the crucial importance of family planning to achieve a range of health and other development objectives in developing countries. This Viewpoint focuses on the successful implementation of services in Ethiopia, Africa's second most populous country. Ethiopia's encouraging experience could challenge the widely held assumption that a decline in fertility must be.

In Population Policy in Transition in the Developing World, also published in the population issue of Science, authors John Bongaarts and Steven Sinding explain why there has been renewed interest on family planning in developing countries. Since rapid population growth in the poorest countries is hampering development, economists, once notably skeptical, increasingly acknowledge that. contraception among women in developing countries. Information and counseling to help women and couples learn about all FP methods available to them could help meet the current unmet need (Sedgh & Hussain, 2014). Ringheim (2012) emphasizes the importance of family planning programming at the community level to improve substantiv Excluding China, use of modern family planning by women of reproductive age in the developing world increased from less than 10 percent in 1965 to 53 percent in 2005, a growth that represents an.

The Importance of Family Planning, an Issue Brought to

Family planning UNFPA - United Nations Population Fun

Family planning programs have been in place for more than 30 years in many regions of the world. In the industrial nations whose donations and technical assistance support these programs, they have been relatively noncontroversial and have enjoyed broad political support throughout most of their history Urban planning in developing countries gets a lot of attention, but youth involvement in this process, says guest blogger Lisa Nyamadzawo, is imperative to a successful city. The increasing urban challenges currently faced in both developed and developing countries are evident that there is something missing in urban planning. Over the last century, planning has become a discipline. Providing family planning information, consultation and services is an important measure in promoting family planning. The Chinese government attaches great importance to meeting the various and multi-level needs of people of child-bearing age by relying on progress in science and technology, and the study and development of the methods of. All family planning methods can and should be offered at this level. Sterilization can be done both by minilaparotomy and laparoscopy by the doctors and gynecologists at this level. A training and research role in family planning at these levels is of capital importance. Causes of family planning programme failure in developing countries

World Population Day—Six Reasons to Support Family Plannin

  1. Information Systems and Measurement for Assessing Program Effects: Implications for Family Planning Programs in Developing Countries. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9041. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9041
  2. Family planning programmes in developing countries have achieved great success in lowering barriers to services and improving the survival and health of children and mothers. However, there are still over 100 million women in the developing world who want to avoid or postpone childbearing but are not using any family planning method ( Ross 1995.
  3. For example, family planning accounts for less than 3 percent of total health expenditures in four sub-Saharan countries: Benin (0.2 percent), Burkina Faso (1.1 percent), Liberia (2.3 percent), and Tanzania (0.9 percent). Phillips expressed concern that the region may be drifting away from investment and programmatic research
  4. As modern contraceptive methods have become more widely available throughout the world, infant mortality has decreased from approximately 150 deaths per 1000 live births in the 1950s to 80 deaths per 1000 live births in the 1990s. 4 In developing countries, 53% of married women plan family size, and 90% of them use modern birth control methods.
  5. This is an important policy measure that has been adopted by several developing countries. India is the first country in the world to adopt family planning as a state policy. Under family planning programme various contraceptive devices and health services are provided to encourage the couples to adopt small family norm, that is, to have fewer.

Significant efforts are being made and substantial progress has been achieved in several developing countries to reduce fertility and increase birth spacing . Family planning services still need to be fully integrated with other health and nutritional services for women of childbearing age In the same vein, many developing countries like Korea, Brazil, Columbia, China, India and Bangladesh have successfully applied family planning programs as a panacea for overpopulation. Nigeria has also adopted family planning strategy to curb the high rate of population growth that it is presently experiencing During a similar time frame, facility deliveries increased from 39% to 72% in Burkina Faso and from 43% to 64% in Kenya. 21 As countries continue to strengthen facility-based childbirth care, this will be an increasingly important platform to reach women and their partners with family planning services Despite the United Nations declaring birth control to be a universal human right, 222 million women in developing countries are still left without Family Planning methods (ThinkProgress). Less fortunate countries have difficulty providing birth control because of costs and social disapproval

The Economic Benefits of Family Planning by Natalia

  1. Family planning program: In developing countries 220 million women have unmet need of contraception due to lack access to contraceptives and family planning information or services. Less than 20 percent of women in Sub-Saharan Africa and barely one-third of women in South Asia use modern contraceptives
  2. FP2020 aims to expand access to family planning to an additional 120 million women and girls in 69 of the world's poorest countries by 2020, compared to a baseline in 2012. Robust analysis of family-planning levels and trends among all WRA is impeded by limited data availability
  3. Most developing countries often lack efficiency, availability and balance of human resources for managing a successful health care system. Different initiatives on recruitment, capacity building and incentives to improve the efficiency of the health workforce have been undertaken, but did not result in significant improvement in service delivery
  4. Congressional Record, June 12, 1991, H4336-4338. U.S. AID testified that, under the Mexico City Policy, the United States provided about 45 percent of all international family planning assistance in more than 100 countries . . . 85 of those coutnries were developing countries. Congressional Record, June 12, 1991, H4338
  5. TOURISM PLANNING IN DEVELOPED COUNTRIES • In general planning for tourists is less difficult in developed countries than it is in developing ones. • Planning is important and should provide a quality environment for both tourists and residents. • The planning process for tourism development is the same as in city or regional planning
  6. Today, nearly one in five people in developing countries still live in extreme poverty on less than $1.25 a day and 96% of these people live in countries that are politically fragile, environmentally vulnerable or both. Development needs of people and countries today are more complex and more difficult
Contraceptive use in Nigeria is incredibly low

The socioeconomic impact of female education constitutes a significant area of research within international development.Increases in the amount of female education in regions tends to correlate with high levels of development. Some of the effects are related to economic development.Women's education increases the income of women and leads to growth in GDP The Contribution of Health Economics to Health Planning. Health planning is basically about choice: choice between one future or another; choice between various ways of achieving that future. Health economics is also interested in choice, so there is an obvious affinity between health economics and health planning Population education has gradually gained acceptance as an important part of the school curriculum in most developing countries of the world. However, a lot still needs to be done if this relatively new field is to become both institutionalized and strengthened substantively to the point that its impact can be felt over a long-term period India, officially the Republic of India (Hindi: Bhārat Gaṇarājya), is a country in South Asia.It is the second-most populous country, the seventh-largest country by land area, and the most populous democracy in the world. Bounded by the Indian Ocean on the south, the Arabian Sea on the southwest, and the Bay of Bengal on the southeast, it shares land borders with Pakistan to the west. Family planning programs have success in developing countries, but need to be expanded 20 February 2011, by Jeff Grabmeier While many researchers generally credit the desir

A new report finds greater access to family planning methods would save developing countries more than $11 billion a year in reduced costs for maternal and newborn health care. In this year's. What works in family planning interventions: a systematic review. Stud Fam Plan. 2011;42(2):67-82. Article Google Scholar 20. Sonalkar S, Mody S, Phillips S, Gaffield ME. Programmatic aspects of postpartum family planning in developing countries: a qualitative analysis of key informant interviews in Kenya and Ethiopia 170 million women have no access to safe and effective methods of family planning in developing countries.1 1/3 of population growth is due to unplanned pregnancies. 2 n Of the 210 million pregnancies occurring eac

Bergevin says improving family planning among developing countries, which was the theme of this year's World Population Day on July 11, will ultimately benefit human development — from reduced. Many women in SSA countries know the important role played by Family Planning (FP) in preventing unwanted pregnancies, but what they may not know is its role in planning and improving the lives and families of the users . In developing countries, it was estimated in 2012 that 222 million women had an unmet need for FP mechanisms are therefore an issue for those developing family planning programmes. Hence, in developing family planning programmes, governments need to weigh up the cost delivery of mechanisms versus their effectiveness and theneed to provide access to all (Barberis & Harvey, 1997)

— 1984 Family Planning Program Effort and Birthrate Decline in Developing Countries. International Family Planning Perspectives 10:109-118. Article Google Scholar — 1985 Contraceptive Prevalence: The Influence of Organized Family Planning Programs. Studies in Family Planning 16:117-137 to other SDGs. Accelerated fertility decline through effective family planning programmes slows rapid population growth, contributing to the SDGs related to the economy, environment, and development (2). Accelerating uptake of voluntary, rights-based family planning in developing countries To meet the FP2020 and Sustainable Development Goals Strengthening family planning services should therefore be given a high priority in countries with a high level of unmet need. Figure 1: Relationship between the prevalence of contraceptive use and unmet need for contraception and total fertility rate in Asi Keywords: Family planning, postpartum, key informants, qualitative Introduction To achieve the improved maternal and child outcomes of birth spacing, family planning in the postpartum period is essential1. An estimated 222 million women in the developing world have an unmet need for family planning, meaning that the

Achievements in Public Health, 1900-1999: Family Planning. During the 20th century, the hallmark of family planning in the United States has been the ability to achieve desired birth spacing and family size ().Fertility decreased as couples chose to have fewer children; concurrently, child mortality declined, people moved from farms to cities, and the age at marriage increased (1) associated with a leveling off in contraceptive use, the demand for family planning, and the number of wanted births. This report presents a comparative analysis of family planning at the national level for 35 developing countries in four regions around the world, using data from the Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) The World Health Organization, the Population Council and Family Health International have played an important role in supporting collaborative studies for the development, introduction and evaluation of family planning methods in developing countries Public health officials have advocated the involvement of men as a strategy for addressing the dismal performance of family planning (FP) programmes. This study was therefore designed to explore the challenges and determine way forward to male involvement in FP in Olorunda Local Government Area, Osogbo, Nigeria. This cross-sectional study involved the use of a four-stage sampling technique to. Information on factors influencing male involvement in family planning practice was obtained through administering a structured questionnaire and conducting in- depth interviews. A total of 218 men aged 18- 60 years were interviewed. The results indicated that respondents were highly (85.3%) aware of modern contraceptives but contraceptive use.

What Is the Importance of Family Planning? How To Adul

DKT International, one of the largest private providers of family planning and reproductive health products and services in developing countries, recently released the 2013 Contraceptive Social Marketing Statistics. This annual report details sales of 85 social marketing organizations around the world Family planning enables women who wish to limit the size of their families to do so. By reducing rates of unintended pregnancies, contraception also reduces the need for unsafe abortion. Family planning is a low-cost and effective way to save lives. Contraceptive supplies cost, on average, about US$1.55 per user annually in developing countries In the developing countries millions of women in the reproductive age who don't use contraceptives prefer to postpone or limit their birth. This indicates their failure to take necessary decision to prevent and avoid unwanted pregnancy. A community-based cross sectional household survey was conducted to investigate unmet need for family planning and associated factors and total demand for. They note that those developing countries, which have successfully been able to establish industries and advancements in technology thus catch-up with developed countries by adopting the latter's technology. This is the same argument put forward by Vernon's life cycle model (1966), which emphasises that the cost of production is a critical.

Increased access to family planning must be a component of any plan to improve the health and well-being of women in developing countries. Family planning, appropriate care during childbirth, and. family planning and improving the quality. The important point is that the sys-tem should be multi-sectoral, gathering in- In developing countries, where the double burden of under-and. DRAFT - LIKHAAN - Advancing Family Planning in the Philippines - NOT FOR CITATION — 06 Dec 2010 Page 3 of 44 The first period (1988 - 1991) was a transition phase in many ways: the whole government was rebuilding old and new institutions and processes after 14 years of authoritarian rule,* and a law that would radically change the health sector through devolution was proposed and. Urban planning: challenges in developing countries 3 technology and information. This has been the particular case in China, Korea and other Asian countries where cities play a key role, in terms of liberalization and links with other cities. Large port cities tend to be the ideal choice for export Many countries have had success in reducing their birth rates. Thailand, for instance, reduced its fertility rate (the average number of children per woman) by nearly 75% in just two generations with a targeted, creative and ethical family planning programme. In the last ten years alone, fertility rates in Asia have dropped by nearly 10%

tion, training, health, and family planning assistance, have a magnifying effect of helping their children become healthy, educated, and productive citizens.! Youth are sexually active. Half of all girls under age 18 are married in some countries. Further, 4.4 million adolescents undergo abortions every year—40% of which are performed under. The level of unmet need for contraception—an important motivator of international family planning programs and policies—has declined only slightly in recent decades. This study draws upon data from 51 surveys conducted between 2006 and 2013 in Africa, Asia, and Latin America and the Caribbean to provide an updated review of the reasons why.

The importance of family plannin

Family planning is considered as one of the four pillars of safe motherhood program for reducing high maternal mortality in developing countries. Early attempts to estimate the effect of family planning on maternal mortality were fraught with gross data paucity. With the recent availabilit Household Sample Surveys in developing and transition countries should help to explain not only what is happening but also why it is happening. Yet, these are often the most important questions because they seek to understand the impact of current policies or programs, and perhaps even hypothetical future policies or programs, on the. And in developing countries, due to the lack of education or awareness children are considered as. But, in today's scenario, family planning is playing an important role also in the developing countries

By 2050, nearly 85 percent of global energy generation is projected to come from renewables ( IRENA, 2018 ). Developing countries built more clean energy than fossil-fueled, power-generating capacity for the second year in a row, as reported by Bloomberg New Energy Finance (BNEF). This momentum, however, is being challenged by a growing and. This contribution studies the variation in desired family size and excess fertility in four East African countries by analyzing the combined impact of wealth, education, religious affiliation, and place of residence. The findings show an enormous heterogeneity in Kenya. Wealthy and higher educated people have fertility desires close to replacement level, regardless of religion, while poor. Pandemic preparedness and response are quintessential global public goods: unless the new coronavirus is controlled everywhere, the risk of pandemic resurgence remains. This paper presents the key role of development finance in helping developing countries' health systems prepare and respond to outbreaks. Yet, the global architecture is proving insufficient - and the risk is great.

Evidence for Action: Assessing the Availability of Essential Family Planning Services During COVID-19 in the Philippines. The COVID-19 pandemic is having a profound health and socioeconomic impact in more than 80 countries around the world, as governments enact lockdowns and quarantine measures, many people shift to working from home, schools. This article critically reviews planning as applied to developing countries. Planning. changes in the economic policy of developing countries in the 1980s. to look after the other family. The determinants of client satisfaction with family planning services in developing countries: Three essays How can population growth be reduced in developing countries? 5 possible solutions to overpopulation. Empower women. Studies show that women with access to reproductive health services find it easier to break out of poverty, while those who work are more likely to use birth control. Promote family planning. Make education entertaining

Family Planning and Population Control in Developing Countrie

More than 225 million girls and women in developing countries have unmet need for family planning. The project shipped contraceptives to 75 countries, enabling millions of women and families to make the best reproductive choices for themselves Stunting in Developing Countries Andrew M. Prentice Introduction Although stunting rates in low- and middle-income countries have been declining quite rapidly, with many countries meeting their Millennium Development Goal targets, there remain an estimated 160 million stunted children worldwide. As one of its Nutrition Targets, the World Health Organization (WHO) has set an ambitious goal of a. perhaps hardly surprising that the family planning programs that resulted were based on top-down hierarchical models and that their success was judged in terms of numeric goals and targets - numbers of family planning acceptors, couple-years of protection, numbers of tubal ligations performed. Donors, anxious t A man who is aware of his role in family planning, and the role of family planning in the economy, will be more likely to understand the importance of contraception, and respect a woman's body Family planning efforts have been worsened by shocks to the global supply chain of contraceptives. Major suppliers of condoms and IUDs located in India and Malaysia have reported production and.

New Age Islam: Over 100,000 Manuscripts, Books Burnt By

How family planning can promote maternal and child healt

Similarly, developing countries now have the dominance of agriculture, which largely contributes to their national income. 3. Relief from Capital Shortage. The development of the agricultural sector of developing countries has also helped relieve them from a shortage of capital Research in developing countries. Educational Broadcasting International, 14(3), 101-104. Ouane, A. (1982). Rural newspapers and radio for post-literacy in Mali. Prospects, 12 (2), 243-253. Park, H. (1967). Use and relative effectiveness of various channels of communications in the development of the Korean Family Planning Programme The contribution of tourism is in varied proportion and different for each country. Tourism's importance and contribution for developing countries is different from its significance, influence and support for developed countries. If we first take the developing and growing countries like India, Philippines, Malaysia, Sri Lanka

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